stem cells Archives - Go Good Guru

Tag Archives for " stem cells "

Study Shows Aging Process Increases DNA Mutations

Study shows aging process increases DNA mutations in important type of stem cellAs it is in much of life, the aging process isn’t kind molecular and cellular neuroscience to an important type of stem cell that has great therapeutic promiseResearchers at the Scripps Translational Science Institute (STSI) and The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) who looked at the effect of aging on induced (iPSCs) found that genetic increased with the age of the donor who provided the source cells, according to study results published today by the journal Nature Biotechnology.The findings reinforce the importance of screening iPSCs for potentially harmful DNA mutations before using them for therapeutic purposes, said lead investigators Ali Torkamani, Ph.D., director of genome informatics at STSI, and Kristin Baldwin Ph.D., the study’s co-lead investigators and associate professor of molecular and cellular neuroscience at the Dorris Neuroscience Center at TSRI.

“Any time a cell divides, there is a risk of a mutation occurring. Over time, those risks multiply,” Torkamani said. “Our study highlights that increased risk of mutations in iPSCs made from older donors of source cells.”Researchers found that iPSCs made from donors in their late 80s had twice as many mutations among protein-encoding genes as stem cells made from donors in their early 20s.

That trend followed a predictable linear track paired with age with one exception. Unexpectedly, iPSCs made from blood cells donated by people over 90 years old actually contained fewer mutations than what researchers had expected. In fact, stem cells from those extremely elderly participants had mutation numbers more comparable to iPSCs made from donors one-half to two-thirds younger.Researchers said the reason for this could be tied to the fact that remaining in have been protected from mutations over their lifetime by dividing less frequently.

“Using iPSCs for treatment has already been initiated in Japan in a woman with age-related macular degeneration,” said paper co-author and STSI Director Eric Topol, M.D. “Accordingly, it’s vital that we fully understand the effects of aging on these cells being cultivated to treat patients in the future.”STSI is a National Institutes of Health-sponsored site led by Scripps Health in collaboration with TSRI. This innovative research partnership is leading the effort to translate wireless and genetic medical technologies into high-quality, cost-effective treatments and diagnostics for patients.

Of the 336 different mutations that were identified in the iPSCs generated for the study, 24 were in genes that could impair cell function or trigger tumor growth if they malfunctioned.How troublesome these mutations could be depends on how well the stem cells are screened to filter out the defects and how they are used therapeutically, Torkamani said. For example, cells made from iPSCs for a bone marrow transplant would be potentially dangerous if they contained a TET2 gene mutation linked to blood cancer, which surfaced during the study.

“We didn’t find any overt evidence that these mutations automatically would be harmful or pathogenic,” he said.For the study, researchers tapped three sources for 16 participant blood samples: The Wellderly Study, an ongoing STSI research project that is searching for the genetic secrets behind lifelong health by looking at the genes of healthy elderly people ages 80 to 105; the STSI GeneHeart Study, which involves people with coronary artery disease; and TSRI’s research blood donor program.

The iPSCs were generated by study co-authors Valentina Lo Sardo, Ph.D., and Will Ferguson, M.S., researchers in the TSRI group led by Baldwin.”When we proposed this study, we weren’t sure whether it would even be possible to grow iPSCs from the blood of the participants in the Wellderly Study, since others have reported difficulty in making these from aged patients,” Baldwin said. “But through the hard work and careful experiments designed by Valentina and Will, our laboratories became the first to produce iPSCs from the blood of extremely elderly people.”

Source…http://news360.com/article/382262662

World First Stem Cell Trial To Treat Parkinson’s Disease Starts At Royal Melbourne Hospital

The future of combating disease has arrvied ! A world first stem cell trial could revolutionise the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, for which there is currently no cure.A 64-year old Victorian man was the first patient to receive the neural stem cells in a delicate operation performed at Royal Melbourne Hospital.Neurologist Andrew Evans and neurosurgeon Girish Nair practised weeks beforehand on a 3D model of the patient’s brain, planning a way to enter the brain for the five hour operation.

‘The first patient’s operation was a success, however we won’t know for 12 months the effects of the stem cell implants and if we are on the verge of a new treatment for Parkinsons,’ Dr Evans said.It’s estimated around 10 million people around the world suffer from Parkinson’s disease, including 80,000 Australians.The debilitating condition destroys a person’s ability to control their body movements, leaving them with tremors, rigid muscles and slow movement.

According to Parkinson’s Australia, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease relates to a lack of a brain chemical called dopamine.’The first phase is critical for us to understand the right amount of neural stem cells required to be injected into the brain,’ Dr Evans said.’The three different doses range from 30,000,000 to 70,000,000 neural cells and of those, only a very small percentage will become dopamine. Dopamine is a hormone that transmits information between brain cells and is one of the most critical transmitters in the brain that is lost with Parkinson’s disease.’

Mr Girish Nair said accuracy was key when injecting the stem cells into the brain. ‘The stem cells entered the brain through two 1.5cm holes in the skull and we targeted 14 sites on the brain and each injection had to be spaced four minutes apart,’ Mr Nair said. Eleven more patients will now have the surgery, each being monitored over a 12 month period to ‘evaluate the safety and the effects of the neural stem cells.”PET scans will also be performed at various times during the study to see if the transplanted stems cells have taken effect,’ Mr Nair said.The stem cell used in the procedure is known as a pluripotent stem cell.

It’s a master cell that can change into any cell in the body and is highly influenced by its environment. ‘At the end of the study we will have transplanted tens of millions of neural stem cells directly into the brains of the 12 Australian participants. Hopefully this will go a long way into understanding how we can replenish brain function for people with Parkinson disease.’ The transplant of stem cells in the remaining 11 patients will finish in 2017 with the results expected in 2019.

SOURCE…www.dailymail.co.uk

World First Stem Cell Trial To Treat Parkinson's Disease Starts At Royal Melbourne Hospital

The future of combating disease has arrvied ! A world first stem cell trial could revolutionise the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, for which there is currently no cure.A 64-year old Victorian man was the first patient to receive the neural stem cells in a delicate operation performed at Royal Melbourne Hospital.Neurologist Andrew Evans and neurosurgeon Girish Nair practised weeks beforehand on a 3D model of the patient’s brain, planning a way to enter the brain for the five hour operation.

‘The first patient’s operation was a success, however we won’t know for 12 months the effects of the stem cell implants and if we are on the verge of a new treatment for Parkinsons,’ Dr Evans said.It’s estimated around 10 million people around the world suffer from Parkinson’s disease, including 80,000 Australians.The debilitating condition destroys a person’s ability to control their body movements, leaving them with tremors, rigid muscles and slow movement.

According to Parkinson’s Australia, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease relates to a lack of a brain chemical called dopamine.’The first phase is critical for us to understand the right amount of neural stem cells required to be injected into the brain,’ Dr Evans said.’The three different doses range from 30,000,000 to 70,000,000 neural cells and of those, only a very small percentage will become dopamine. Dopamine is a hormone that transmits information between brain cells and is one of the most critical transmitters in the brain that is lost with Parkinson’s disease.’

Mr Girish Nair said accuracy was key when injecting the stem cells into the brain. ‘The stem cells entered the brain through two 1.5cm holes in the skull and we targeted 14 sites on the brain and each injection had to be spaced four minutes apart,’ Mr Nair said. Eleven more patients will now have the surgery, each being monitored over a 12 month period to ‘evaluate the safety and the effects of the neural stem cells.”PET scans will also be performed at various times during the study to see if the transplanted stems cells have taken effect,’ Mr Nair said.The stem cell used in the procedure is known as a pluripotent stem cell.

It’s a master cell that can change into any cell in the body and is highly influenced by its environment. ‘At the end of the study we will have transplanted tens of millions of neural stem cells directly into the brains of the 12 Australian participants. Hopefully this will go a long way into understanding how we can replenish brain function for people with Parkinson disease.’ The transplant of stem cells in the remaining 11 patients will finish in 2017 with the results expected in 2019.

SOURCE…www.dailymail.co.uk